Family ► Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat ► Smaller var., equated with E. thymifolia, is found in tropical plains and low hills of India, ascending to 1,750 m. Bigger var., E. pilulifera/E. hirta Linn. is found in warmer parts of India from Punjab eastwards, and southwards to Kanyakumari.

Ayurvedic ► Dudhi (smaller var.), Dugdhikaa, Naagaarjuni, Swaaduparni.

Siddha/Tamil ► Sittrapaladi.

Action ► Plant—antispasmodic, bronchodilator, antiasthmat- ic (used in bronchial asthma), galactagogue (also used for spermatorrhoea). Root—used in amenorrhoea. Latex—used in ringworm, dandruff. Leaf, seed and latex—purgative. A decoction of the plant, with honey, is given to treat haematuria.

Aerial parts gave epitaraxerol, n- hexacosanol, euphorbol, two derivatives of deoxyphorbol-OAC, 24-meth- ylene cycloartenol and quercetin galactoside. Co-carcinogenic activity is due to phorbol derivatives. The plant exhibits antimicrobial activity due to alkaloids.

Dosage ► Whole plant—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)

Family ► Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat ► Native to Africa; naturalized in the warmer parts of India.

English ► Milk-Bush, Milk Hedge, Indian tree Spurge, Aveloz, Petroleum Plant

Ayurvedic ► Saptalaa, Saatalaa.

Siddha/Tamil ► Tirukalli.

Folk ► Angulia-thuuhar.

Action ► Purgative, emetic, antiasthmatic, bechic. Used for whooping cough, asthma, dyspepsia, biliousness, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leucorrhoea. Latex—applied externally on warts.

Used as a purgative and for rheumatism and neuralgia. Stem bark—used for gastralgia, colic, asthma.

The latex contains an ingol ester besides triterpenoids, euphorbinol and cycloeuphordenol.

Presence of a number of ingenol and phorbol esters (diterpenoids), and tri- terpenoids are reported from the plant. The stem gave hentriacontane, hentri- acontanol, beta-sitosterol, Me-ellagic and ellagic acids and kaempferol glu- coside.

The latex is a weak tumour promoter.