J. F. Gmel.

Madhuca butyracea Macr.

Synonym ► Aisandra butyracea (Roxb.) Baehni.

Family ► Sapotaceae.

Habitat ► Found in sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaon to Bhutan.

Ayurvedic ► Madhuuka (related species).

Synonym ► M. longifolia (Koen.) Macb. var. latifolia (Roxb.) Cheval. Bassia latifolia Roxb.

Family ► Sapotaceae.

Habitat ► A large tree, cultivated mainly in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar.

English ► Mahua tree, Moha.

Ayurvedic ► Madhuuka, Madhu- pushpa, Madhusrav, Gudapushpa.

Unani ► Mahuaa.

Siddha/Tamil ► Ieluppai.

Action ► Flowers—stimulant, demulcent, laxative, anthelmintic, bechic. Seed oil—galactogenic, anticephalgic, emetic. Used in pneumonia, skin diseases, piles. Bark—astringent, emollient. Used for tonsilitis, gum troubles, diabetes, ulcers. Bark, seed oil and gum— antirheumatic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the flower without stalk or calyx in asthma and pthisis.

The fruit pulp yielded a number of triterpenoids (including alpha- and beta-amyrin acetate); also n-hexaco- sanol, beta-D-glucoside of beta-sitos- terol and free sitosterol.

Nut shell gave beta-sitosterol gluco- side, quercetin and dihydroquercetin.

The carollas are rich source of sugars, vitamins, phosphorus, calcium and iron; magnesium and copper are also present. The sugars identified are sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, ara- binose and rhamnose.

The seeds yielded saponins—2,3- di-O-glucopyranoside of bassic acid (saponin A and saponin B). Mixture of saponins from seeds exhibits spermi- cidal activity.

Trunkbarkcontainedlupeol acetate, beta-amyrin acetate, alpha-spinasterol, erythrodiol monocaprylate, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid caprylates.

Dosage ► Flower—10-15 g (API, Vol. II.); flower-juice—10-20 ml; bark— 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)